Learning is the result of gene-environment interactions

  • Genes construct learning systems
  • And, genes are responsive to important sensory stimuli

Cross-fostering has different imprinting effects in two related songbirds

Genetic differences can also cause behavioral differences amongst individuals.

  • ex. California Garter snake
    • Inland populations eat fish and frogs
    • Coastal populations eat banana slugs

How would you test for genetic differences in behavior?

  • Need to use individuals without experience

A single gene can have effects on behavior

  • One gene can be the starting point for a cascade of effects