Zebras display disruptive coloring. This leads to the confusion effect, if a lion is running after a zebra the stripes make it harder for them to single one out.

The dilution effect- Your probability of being eaten is is smaller the larger the group is.

Many Eyes Hypothesis- More eyes to watch out for a predator.

Many Legs Hypothesis- Many spiders don’t see well but they sense vibrations through the web. More spiders will have more legs to sense the predators.

The Selfish Herd- Animals in the middle of of a herd may be more inaccessible to predators.

Game Theory- The success of an individual depends on what it’s competitors are doing.

Distraction Displays- Birds doing the broken wing act, the predator will go to the “weak” bird and they can take off at the last minute and it directs the attention away from their nest.

 Crypsis- Also known as camouflage, it is a passive defense that makes it hard for the predator to see the prey against the background.

Aggressive mimicry- A predator that blends into the background so that the prey won’t see them and then they can attack.

  • Also spiders that look like ants are an example.

Aposematism- Bright colors that show that they’re toxic.

Mimicry- When organisms resemble other species.

Batesian Mimicry- When harmless species mimic a harmful one.

  • Mimics tend to make up only about 10% of the population

Mullerian Mimicry- When two or more unpalatable species resemble each other. This takes advantage of a predators ability to learn.