Social Behavior

Reciprocal cooperation is not common in the short term because they need to develop meaningful long term connections with each other.

Options for year old-male Pied Kingfisher’s that are unable to find mates

  • Primary Helpers: Bring fish to their mothers and siblings and attack predatory nest enemies like snakes.
  • Secondary Helpers: Help unrelated nesting pairs and go on to breed next year.
  • Delayers: Wait around, don’t use up valuable energy to help to rear anyone else’s offspring, breed next year.

– Some helpers inherit natal territories and reproduce the next season (does this enhance the helpers’ direct or indirect fitness?) Direct Fitness

– Some helpers don’t reproduce, but help their parents. And these parents rear more offspring then those without helpers. (does this enhance the helpers direct or indirect fitness?) Indirect Fitness